Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: May 06, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412958660 | Print ISBN: 9781412958653 | Online ISBN: 9781412958660| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Marx, Karl (1818–1883)
Born in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at Bonn and Berlin before becoming a radical journalist. His work was suppressed, and he left Prussia but was expelled from Belgium and France. He lived in England from 1849 until his death. In 1844 he met Friedrich Engels. They wrote voluminously both as independent authors and in partnership. In the twentieth century, many ruling communist parties claimed allegiance to Marx's ideas. Most other countries had opposition parties ostensibly inspired by Marx. Marxism became one of the most influential ideologies of the twentieth century. As a student Marx was influenced by the work of G. W. F. Hegel, who considered each person's mind to be a limited manifestation of the universal Geist , or spirit. Hegel saw the history of the world and its progress toward freedom in terms of the dialectical development of spirit, whereby thought proceeded by contradiction of an idea, ...