Lesbian relationships refer to the emotional, physical, and sexual bonds formed between two women. It is not clear how many women participate in lesbian relationships in prison, although estimates from prison personnel and prisoners suggest that anywhere from 30% to 60% of women in prison are involved in same-sex relationships. Studies about lesbian prison relationships conducted between 1913 and 1970 were primarily interested in three main areas: the “causes” and frequency of lesbian activity in prison, cross-racial lesbian relationships in U.S. women's prisons, and networks developed by women in American prisons called “play families” or “pseudofamilies.” Researchers used personal observations and surveys distributed to prisoners to gather data about the frequency, causes, and nature of lesbian activity in prisons for women. The assumptions and interpretations inherent in these studies reflect the racial, sexual, and gender biases of the time. For example, during the early to mid-20th century, researchers were interested ...