Managerialism is an ideology. As such, it is a set of values, ideas, and beliefs about the state of the world that provides justification for action. At the heart of managerialism lies the belief that with better management, we can solve economic and social problems, including crime and crime control. Managerialist thought fostered and has been nourished by the development of actuarial justice and its expression in corrections: new penology. In Western societies in the 1980s, a consensus emerged that governments were regulating, owning, and owing too much, and that the welfare state was not working as planned. People wanted to be taxed less and were expecting others to become more self-reliant. Privatization and deregulation became popular. At the beginning of the 21st century, when globalization is increasing at ever-greater pace, governments are immersed in neo-liberalist philosophy: privatization of programs, deregulation of corporate behaviors, reducing government debts, participating in free ...