Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: June 02, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412971928 | Print ISBN: 9781412950855 | Online ISBN: 9781412971928| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Johnson v. California
The United States currently has more than 5,000 adult prisons and jails, each with its own design features, staffing ratios, design and operational capacity, offender population, and resource level. In these facilities, administrators are responsible for maintaining order and preventing violent incidents. Risk assessment and classification are useful tools for managing inmate populations, and since 2005 they have become even more critical for prison culture as U.S. jails and prisons are no longer able to segregate inmates—based on their racial and/or ethnic background alone—for extended periods of time within the institution. According to the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons: Reducing violence among prisoners depends on the decisions corrections administrators make about where to house prisoners and how to supervise them. Perhaps most important are the classification decisions managers make to ensure that housing units do not contain incompatible individuals or groups of people: informants and those they ...