Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: May 28, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963930 | Print ISBN: 9781412941655 | Online ISBN: 9781412963930| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Welfare capitalism is a term that social scientists employ to define a specific form of regulating industrial relations and of controlling class struggles. With the onset of industrialization, advanced economies faced several problems and restrictions. At a more general level, constant revolutionizing of production and increasing degrees of urbanization and proletarianization undermined the previous socioeconomic foundations of these societies and led to social unrest, uncertainty, and poverty. Proletarianization refers to a social process by which an increasing number of the population, who were previously small producers or self-employed, lose their control over the means of production and become absorbed into the working class; that is, they have to sell their labor power to an employer. Deteriorating work conditions, increasing exploitation, and alienation caused dissatisfaction at work; these things in turn resulted in high turnover rates, absenteeism, indifference, drunkenness, violence, strikes, militancy among workers, and unionization, followed by a significant decline ...