Mustafa E. Gurbuz
Collective consciousness, also known as conscience collective , refers to a shared, intersubjective understanding of common norms and values among a group of people. The concept was developed by eminent French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858–1917). In his magnum opus, The Division of Labor in Society , Durkheim employs the term collective consciousness to describe a determinate social system in which the totality of beliefs and sentiments are common to the average members of a society. According to Durkheim, collective consciousness possesses a distinctive reality because it is a nonmaterial social construction, which is external to, and coercive of, individuals in a particular social order. Therefore, Durkheim distinguishes collective consciousness from the individual consciousness. Collective consciousness of a given society operates as an external force over the group members and autonomously exists outside of the individual's biological and psychic sphere. Nonetheless, the collective consciousness can only be operationalized through consciousness social ...