Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: December 15, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412971966 | Print ISBN: 9781412940504 | Online ISBN: 9781412971966| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Adah L. Ward Randolph
“Jim Crow” was the name given to laws and practices originating in the late 19th century that in effect extended the enslavement of Africans and maintained a legal second-class citizenship status for free and newly freed Africans. The goal of Jim Crow was to physically segregate and discriminate against African Americans. By this means, the actions and future possibilities of African Americans were limited from the 19th through the middle of the 20th century. Although Jim Crow laws have now been dismantled in the United States, the residue of these segregationist laws continues to limit African Americans in various areas, including education. This entry looks more broadly at the origins of Jim Crow and examines its impact on education. Beginning during the colonial period and intensifying throughout the antebellum era, the precursors of Jim Crow were the Black Codes, which were often used in the North and East to limit ...