Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: January 26, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412964623 | Print ISBN: 9781412936361 | Online ISBN: 9781412964623| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Edona M. Alexandria
Kumina, also known as Kalunga or Kaduunga , is a Kongo-based religion primarily found in the Parish of St. Thomas in the eastern part of Jamaica. It is quite likely that Kumina emerged there as a consequence of the presence of large numbers of Africans from the Congo-Angola region. Although other African religions existed there as well, the numerical superiority of the Africans from the Congo-Angola region allowed their religion to be dominant and to integrate aspects of other African religious traditions. The practice of Kumina is also attested in the Parish of St. Mary and St. Catherine, but to a lesser degree. Although the origin of the word kumina is still debated, one likely source is kambinda , the name of a particular Bantu people. Although Kumina followers believe in the highest God, Oto , also called King Zombi (from the word Kikongo nzumbi , meaning “spirit, God”), their ...