Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: January 26, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412964623 | Print ISBN: 9781412936361 | Online ISBN: 9781412964623| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Among African people, red is commonly associated with courage, desire, love, passion, physical energy, power, royalty, sexual energy, strength, and war. It is therefore no surprise that the color red has had a special, sacred, and spiritual significance for people of African ancestry since ancient times. Thus, the use of the color red on a crown of a Pharaoh, in body adornment for social status, or on the clothing of an Orisha or Lwa devotee attests to the political and spiritual importance that people of African ancestry have placed on red as a communication code, as well as a color with a potentially powerful visual impact. The first evidence of the special status of red in African culture was around 3000 BC, when, in Kernet (ancient Egypt), red was connected with political events, societal position, spiritual ceremonies, and warrior courage. Indeed, when Pharaoh Menés (a.k.a. Namer) united Upper and Lower ...