Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: January 26, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412964623 | Print ISBN: 9781412936361 | Online ISBN: 9781412964623| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
A significant number of people of African ancestry have a profound propensity for a spiritual way of life or passionate religious expression that is parallel with their worldview, ethos, and cultural location. The extreme physical and psychological conditions to which the Africans were subjected during the African Enslavement Holocaust, including the brutal imposition of Christianity, did not manage, however, to totally dislocate them from their various West African traditional spiritual systems or religious expressions. Millions of African Brazilians are an example of people who resisted and retained many sacred aspects of their West African traditional religious system. They creatively embodied and eclectically mixed the religions of Kardecism, Yoruba, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and the spiritual system of Brazil's indigenous people. The synthesizing of various religious practices in Brazil, primarily Kardecism with Angolan and Yoruba centered cultural and spiritual systems, in the 1950s developed a religious phenomenon labeled Umbanda. In 1885, Parisian ...