Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952453 | Print ISBN: 9780761930297 | Online ISBN: 9781412952453| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Simon Brascoupé & Jenny Etmanskie
Anthropologists such as Anthony F. C. Wallace first employed the term revitalization movement in 1956. The term was created to explain how a society functions under severe stress. A movement would arise because of the complete disorganization and conflict within a society and the need for reform and transformation. Wallace explained that when members of a society feel that their needs are not being satisfied, this process enables them to reorganize and reestablish a more fulfilling culture. Usually, revitalization movements have a religious factor, but they may be pursued from a political stance. Religious revitalization movements frequently occurred in indigenous or traditional societies during colonial times and from first European contact. Other social movements and organizations that have been closely associated with revitalization movements include Cargo Cults, Terre sans mal movements, Madhist movements, Millenarian movements, Messianic movements, Nativistic movements, and separatist churches. In his book Religion: An Anthropological View , ...