Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952453 | Print ISBN: 9780761930297 | Online ISBN: 9781412952453| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Mahgoub El-Tigani Mahmoud
Sudan is an ancient African nation; early Stone Age or Paleolithic sites suggest dates as early as 250,000 BCE. The states of Nobatia, Mukuria, and Alwa adopted Christianity for centuries until they converted to Islam in 1315. Today, Sudanese society is multi-ethnic and multi-religious. The medieval Funj Muslim kingdoms of the Blue Nile might well be descendants of the Shulluk of southern Sudan; the Ingessana and Nuba of central Sudan might well have been the same northern Nubians who had ruled both Egypt and Sudan in ancient times; the other Nilotic Dinka, Nuer, and Anwak groups might well have been the same Ethiopian Sudanese of Aksum and Nubia; and the western African groups might well be related to the populations of the other regions. As Davidson realized, in the continent of Africa, “all these regions really belong together, and what is particular to each of them is general to them ...