Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952453 | Print ISBN: 9780761930297 | Online ISBN: 9781412952453| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Lisa M. Paciulli & Stephanie N. Brown
Washoe is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) known for bringing insight into animal cognition, communication, and social complexity with her capacity for communicating via American Sign Language (ASL). Washoe was born in West Africa in 1965. It is suspected that she was taken to animal dealers after her mother was killed by hunters. Washoe was bought by the U.S. Air Force space program. Two University of Nevada scientists, Drs. Beatrix and Allen Gardner, visited the laboratory and recruited Washoe for their own research. The 10-month-old chimp was brought to the Gardner's Reno, Nevada, home and taught ASL. The Gardners named her Washoe Pan satyrus after Washoe County, Nevada. Washoe was cross-fostered in the Gardner home, living like a human child. She learned to eat with a fork, drink from a cup, dress herself, use ...