Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952453 | Print ISBN: 9780761930297 | Online ISBN: 9781412952453| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Edward Anthony Lukaszek
In the modern world, the diversity of cultures on this planet becomes more evident when seen in the process of globalization. Both internal and external conflict during this process is certain, whereby overt and covert actions threaten a population's autonomy, sovereignty, and nationalistic state. The resulting psychological state becomes that of xenophobia. Xenophobia is the psychological reaction of an individual who has a fear or contempt response to anything that is culturally foreign. This reaction can manifest itself from extreme isolationism to extreme aggression. When viewing the process of globalization and multiculturalism in an evolutionary framework, the resulting xenophobia may be viewed as a natural response to cultural incursion. Preservation, as will be seen, is a result of acute perception and successful behavioral adaptation. Although some psychologists and philosophers, including natural theologians, would be reluctant to admit the pivotal role that biology has on human behavior, the unfolding potentiality of ...