Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Nanmathi Manian & Marc H. Bornstein
Depression comes in many forms and in many degrees. Historically, depression has been conceived of as encompassing a range of states and symptoms from melancholia to hopelessness. Depression is currently conceptualized as a group of related symptoms that include affective, cognitive, appetite, and weight problems, sleep disturbances, and suicidality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th edition (DSM-IV) is recognized by most researchers, at least in North America, as the classification system that defines depression for research and clinical purposes. Major depression (MD) is the most serious type of depression. The criteria for MD require five or more depressive symptoms to be present during the same 2-week period and that at least one be depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure. Minor depression , in comparison, requires two to four symptoms with the same severity and duration requirements as MD. The criterion for dysthymia , a more moderate ...