Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Discipline, Early Childhood
Christine Reiner Hess
Parents have a unique opportunity to teach children how they are expected to behave in the family and in society at large. The goal of socialization, which appears to be universal, is to teach children to distinguish right from wrong and to internalize appropriate rules of conduct. In the context of socialization, what is “right,” “wrong,” “appropriate,” and “inappropriate” is culturally prescribed. Discipline as a method of childhood socialization has been approached in a variety of ways. The behavioral-learning approach encourages the management of children's behavior through behavioral reinforcements and consequences, such as punishments. Others have advocated a combination of warmth, praise, and induction as strategies that promote children's internalization of values (Teti & Candelaria, 2002). One approach to discipline includes the use of behavior-management strategies that focus on rewards, reinforcement, punishment, and extinction as methods of promoting children's desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable behaviors. Reinforcers increase the likelihood Negative ...