Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Occupations and Gender
Since the end of the Second World War, the number of women in paid employment in Europe and the United States has steadily increased. However, although they have made inroads into some traditionally male-dominated occupations, such as law, the majority of working women are still concentrated in a narrow range of stereotypically female occupational areas. This entry provides an overview of theories and data on the reasons for continued occupational gender differences. Occupations can be classed as gender typical when the concentration of either gender performing them is 70% or higher, as gender atypical when the concentration is 30% or less, and as gender neutral where concentrations lie between the two points. Common gender-typical work settings for women include social, health, and educational services (particularly the care and teaching of younger children); office and administrative work; and sales. The concentration of females and males into separate areas of the labor ...