Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Pervasive experiences of exclusion in childhood are negatively related to children's healthy social development. Children who are rejected from others are at risk for loneliness, anxiety, and maladjustment in school (Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 1998). This is also true for adolescents and adults. Adults who have been excluded from social groups are at risk for depression. Most of the research on social exclusion in childhood has focused on why a child excludes others, with an examination of the individual social deficits that contribute to exclusion and rejection (Graham & Juvonen, 1998). These deficits include wariness and fearfulness on the part of the victim as well as a lack of social competence and social skills on the part of the perpetrator. When individuals exclude others for reasons based on group membership, such as gender, race, or ethnicity, however, the source of this type of exclusion is different. This form of exclusion ...