Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Achievement in Mathematics, Gender and Ethnic Differences
Julie Stubbs & Pamela Trotman Reid
In the United States, males outperform females in overall mathematics achievement and outnumber females in lucrative, prestigious math-related careers, although the degree of difference has narrowed during recent decades. There are also large and persistent ethnic gaps in mathematics achievement and participation. Just as males outperform females, Whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders outperform underrepresented minorities (i.e., African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians) (National Science Foundation [NSF], 2003; College Board, 2002). Researchers have found few gender and ethnic differences in math attitudes and achievement during early childhood. At Grades 4, 8, and 12, however, underrepresented minorities scored substantially lower than Whites and Asians on the 2000 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment. At each grade level, underrepresented minorities were more likely than Whites to score below basic proficiency level in mathematics and less likely than Asians to agree with the statement, “I am good at mathematics.” Likewise, at Grades 4, ...