Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Ann C. Benjamin
The subject of cognitive assessment encompasses a multitude of related topics: classroom observation, testing, grading, intelligence, IQ, learning, education, and development, to name just a few. Cognitive assessment is also of special interest to applied developmental science because individuals, young and old, will be advantaged or disadvantaged by the quality of their nation's policies and practices in this area. This entry will introduce the general reader to some basic information and key constructs on the topic of cognitive assessment. The desire to assess cognitive capabilities is not peculiar to modern, technologically sophisticated cultures. As early as 2200 B.C., the Chinese instituted a civil service examination to determine whether government officials were fit to perform their duties, seeking proficiency in music, archery, horsemanship, writing, arithmetic, and public and private rites and ceremonies (Green, 1991). Even the Bible records an instance of a brief oral examination concocted by the Gileadite armies to ...