Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952576 | Print ISBN: 9780761923602 | Online ISBN: 9781412952576| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Anxiety: Its Meaning and Measurement
Charles D. Spielberger & Eric C. Reheiser
Anxiety emerged as a central problem and a predominant theme of modern life in the 20th century, which the French author Albert Camus referred to as “the century of fear” (May, 1950/1977). The Age of Anxiety was the title of both Leonard Bernstein's Second Symphony and a poetic work by W. H. Auden (May, 1950/1977). Inspired by Bernstein's music and Auden's poem, Jerome Robbins choreographed a contemporary ballet, which he also titled the Age of Anxiety (Mason, 1954). The significant impact of anxiety in literature, music, art, and religion, as well as in psychoanalysis, psychiatry, and psychology, was cogently described by Rollo May (1950/1977) in his classic book, The Meaning of Anxiety . May also documents concern with anxiety in the philosophical work of Pascal, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, and, especially, Kierkegaard and Spinoza, who considered fear to be a state of mind characterized by the expectation that something painful or unpleasant ...