Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: July 01, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963985 | Print ISBN: 9781412937207 | Online ISBN: 9781412963985| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Abelardo Villarreal & Josué M. González
From the moment bilingual schools began operating in Miami, Florida; Laredo, Texas; and Rough Rock, Arizona, in the early 1960s, a major concern of program and school leaders related to the qualifications of the teachers who would be involved in the programs. That concern continues today in schools with bilingual education programs. There is common agreement that teachers who teach in two languages require different forms of professional development from those who teach only in one language. Sound pre-ser-vice and in-service programs of professional development are needed to ensure effective teaching. This need is particularly acute today because the No Child Left Behind legislation requires that all children be taught by “highly qualified” teachers. That there is a strong connection between student achievement and teacher quality is undisputed. Coupled with other resources, such as a demanding and culturally relevant curriculum, shared leadership activities, high expectations for students, and robust community ...