Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Brian D. Johnson & Richard Bunce
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is the most common childhood behavior disorder. It is characterized by developmentally elevated levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. These three symptoms are so imperative that they have been referred to as the “holy trinity” of AD/HD. Over the years, the disorder has gone by a number of different names, including minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), hyperkinesis, hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, and attention deficit disorder (ADD). Regardless of the name, some variation of those three symptoms has been included as a part of the diagnosis. Concerns related to symptoms of AD/HD represent 30% to 40% of all psychologically based referrals made to primary care medical practices. In the past, it was widely assumed that children outgrew AD/HD during their adolescent or early adult years. While some individuals do appear to no longer be affected by the disorder once they reach their early 20s, there is increasing evidence ...