Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Adaptive Behavior Testing
Mardis D. Dunham
Adaptive behavior is the extent to which an individual demonstrates the culturally established standards for effective personal independence and social responsibility needed for daily living. This includes how well an individual manages the demands of day-to-day functioning (e.g., hygiene, domestic chores), motor functioning (e.g., ambulation), and communication (e.g., receptive and expressive language). It also includes cognition (e.g., problem solving, managing finances) and social functioning (e.g., use of leisure time, maintaining friendships). The American Association on Mental Retardation explains that adaptive behavior involves three broad areas: Conceptual (e.g., language and academic skills); Social (e.g., interpersonal skills, obeying laws); and Practical (e.g., self-help skills and occupational skills). Adaptive behavior can be contrasted with intellectual functioning, which involves problem solving, reasoning, conceptual thinking, and learning efficiency. Although they represent different constructs, intelligence and adaptive functioning are moderately correlated (around .3 to .4), and the correlation between these constructs increases with the severity of ...