Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Scott T. Meier
Counseling process refers to events, characteristics, or conditions that occur during or as a result of the interaction between counselor and client. The therapeutic relationship that develops during counseling sessions is an example of counseling process; completing homework outside of session also constitutes an event that fits within counseling process. Process can refer to what the counselor does with the client as well as how change occurs within the client. In contrast, counseling outcome refers to the results or effects of counseling. Outcomes are those phenomena that change in the client as a direct or indirect result of counseling. Presumably, process influences outcome, although research has been unsuccessful at demonstrating consistent links between measures of process and measures of outcomes. Measurement of counseling process and outcome has been one of the most vexing tasks in the history of counseling and psychotherapy research. One of the key problems in process and ...