Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Derek R. Hopko & Sarah M. C. Robertson
Depression is a normal human emotion that is experienced periodically in the form of “sadness,” “disappointment,” “grief,” or being “down in the dumps.” It is not uncommon to experience these feelings, particularly if environmental experiences are unrewarding, stressful, negative, or aversive. However, factors such as the frequency and duration of stressful life experiences, attribution style (or way of interpreting events), absence of environmental rewards, and a lack of coping resources influence whether these normal human experiences become symptomatic and evolve into a depressive disorder. According to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) , the two primary diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) are depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in most activities. At least one of these symptoms must occur for a duration of at least 2 weeks. Secondary symptoms include significant appetite change or weight loss ...