Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Kenneth N. Levy & William D. Ellison & Lori N. Scott
Personality disorders (PDs) pose a major challenge to the modern profession of mental health care. Unlike depression, anxiety, and other disorders that are more commonly the focus of treatment, personality disorders are generally understood to be pervasive, inflexible, maladaptive, and enduring expressions of personality. People with PDs exact a heavy cost from themselves and society, as well as place considerable pressure on the mental health care system. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) is currently the most widely used diagnostic system to diagnose personality disorders, particularly in the United States. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), maintained by the World Health Organization, is another important diagnostic system. The DSM-IV-TR distinguishes among 10 PDs that are conceptually organized into three clusters, designated Cluster A (odd-eccentric), Cluster B (dramatic-erratic), and Cluster C (anxious-fearful). Cluster A includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PDs. DSM ...