Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Noriel E. Lim & Sumie Okazaki
To discriminate is to make distinctions or to acknowledge that differences exist. Therefore, discrimination is an act or practice of making distinctions based on perceived or actual differences. Although the word discriminate has neither a negative nor a positive connotation, the term discrimination often carries a negative undertone. Because these two terminologies do not carry the same meaning, Carl Friedrich Graumann and Margaret Wintermantel termed the latter social discrimination . This entry is concerned with social discrimination, which is defined as any behavior made by a person toward another that is based exclusively on the other's innate characteristics or group Discrimination membership. Social discrimination involves denying people fair treatment because of their group membership or personal attributes without considering their individual merit or ability. Discrimination is not the same as stereotypes or prejudice. Unlike these two constructs, which involve primarily cognitive elements, discrimination involves actions that are often dependent While ...