Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Lisa A. Suzuki
Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, and learning quickly from experience. The need to operationalize and make useful the construct of intelligence in educational, clinical, and employment settings led to a proliferation of standardized intelligence tests. Standardization refers to the development of consistent administration and scoring practices and predetermined guidelines regarding the interpretation of test scores. Intelligence tests measure various abilities that may include auditory and visual memory, quantitative reasoning, verbal reasoning, conceptual and abstract reasoning, perceptual and motor processing, spatial reasoning, sequential reasoning, and attention and focus. Most measures assess multiple ability areas and often include both verbal and nonverbal reasoning tasks, although purely nonverbal measures also exist. The most frequently used individually administered intelligence tests are the Wechsler series of scales and the Stanford-Binet. Intelligence and its relationship to educational achievement and future success is complex and ...