Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Helen A. Neville
A little more than a decade after the demands for Black, Latino/a, and women studies on college campuses across the nation in the late 1960s, universities witnessed a new articulation of inclusion. With the rise of hate speech and racially motivated incidents on campuses in the 1980s and 1990s, universities began to find ways to help create a learning environment in which all students felt respected, valued, and free to actively participate in the community life of these institutions. Universities implemented speech codes as one method of creating a more inclusive learning environment; these codes were later ruled unconstitutional because they were considered to be too vague to be administered fairly. Books that critiqued efforts to establish a multicultural curriculum were published on the coat tails of these cases, including Dinesh D'Souza's oft-referenced treatise Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on ...