Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Donald G. Zytowski
Modern life can be viewed as calling for a predictable series of developmental stages. Donald E. Super, a vocational psychologist, has identified five, each one named for its main activity: growth, exploration, establishment, management, and disengagement. Development through these stages requires a series of transitions: from childhood to school, from school to employment (and/or marriage and parenthood), then to increasingly responsible jobs, and finally to retirement. Up until the 20th century, the notion of retirement as we now know it hardly existed. Most people simply worked until they could not anymore. But in the early 1900s, certain occupations—teachers, municipal workers, and especially police officers and firefighters—sought mandatory ...