Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Feedback in Counseling, Immediate
Linda L. Black & Varunee Sangganjanavanich
Counseling is a professional and dynamic relationship that requires clinicians to integrate and demonstrate their intellectual and interpersonal skills. This expectation may well have originated with Sigmund Freud, who required all who studied with him to submit to personal psychoanalysis as part of their academic and clinical training. Today, counselors and psychologists prepare for their professional responsibilities through a series of academic and field-based experiences at the graduate level of study. This preparation focuses on an integration of the intellectual, personal, and interpersonal capabilities of individuals. Counselors-in-training (CITs) receive instruction in a number of subject areas, including, but not limited to, counseling and personality theories, treatment approaches, human life-span development, cultural competencies, research, appraisal and assessment, clinical issues, and treatment. At different points in their education, CITs will treat clients under the supervision of university faculty or other professionals in order to demonstrate a level of competency in providing clinical ...