Pub. date: 2002 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950664 | Print ISBN: 9780761922582 | Online ISBN: 9781412950664| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Curt R. Bartol
Juvenile justice began in the United States on the last day of the 1899 session of the Illinois legislature, when that body passed the Juvenile Court Act. This comprehensive law created a juvenile court in Illinois and gave it jurisdiction over delinquent, dependent, and neglected children. Although other states had adopted various procedures and regulations to deal with socially deviant and troubled youth, the Illinois Juvenile Statute of 1899 represented the first attempt at establishing a separate system of juvenile justice. Other states quickly followed the Illinois lead, and by 1925 all but two states (Maine and Wyoming) had established juvenile courts. Juvenile courts were officially established in Canada in 1909, the first in Winnipeg, in accordance with the National Juvenile Delinquent Law. The philosophy underlying the Illinois Juvenile Court Act was that juvenile offenders should not be given the same punitive treatment as adults, but rather be given individual ...