Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: November 23, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412959193 | Print ISBN: 9781412959186 | Online ISBN: 9781412959193| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Hagan, John, and Holly Foster: Stress and Gendered Pathways to Delinquency
Criminologists in the late 1800s and throughout much of the 1900s were primarily focused on explaining male criminality. Many reasoned that since male criminality was more prevalent, the focus of criminologists should be on examining male offending behavior. Theories formulated during this time attempted to explain male offending and were examined primarily using samples of males. However, the focus on male offending shifted during the 1970s. In the 1970s, the feminist movement was under way in the United States, and it ignited many criminologists to begin examining female criminality. Since the 1970s, several criminological theories have been developed to explain male and female offending with empirical examinations being conducted on samples of males and females. The theories introduced since the 1970s, for the most part, recognize that there may be both similarities and differences when explaining male and female criminality. This entry devotes discussion to John Hagan and Holly Foster's ...