Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: November 23, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412959193 | Print ISBN: 9781412959186 | Online ISBN: 9781412959193| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Maxson, Cheryl L.: Gang Migration Theorizing
Kristy N. Matsuda
In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the United States experienced a substantial rise in the incidence of violent crime committed by juvenile offenders. There was also an unprecedented increase in the gang presence in this country. In particular, gang proliferation was escalating. “Gang proliferation” refers to the increase in the number of localities reporting a gang presence. In other words, it is the expansion of gangs in areas that had previously been unaffected. Theory and research on gang migration, or the movement of gangs from one city to another, focuses on whether the proliferation of gangs is caused by gang members moving to new cities. Alternatively, cities may experience a gang problem independent of the occurrence of gang migrants entering their jurisdictions. Research on the proliferation of gangs has identified two distinct periods of proliferation. Larger cities and mid-size cities experienced gang proliferation at roughly the same period ...