Farrington, David P.: The Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory
This entry describes the theoretical principles and the empirical origins of the integrated cognitive antisocial potential (ICAP) theory by David P. Farrington. ICAP offers a developmental explanation of crime. Farrington defines criminological psychology as “the study of criminal behavior by individuals” (2006b, p. 152). Numerous crime theories, alternative hypotheses about causes of crime, and often unsystematic methods of testing them contributed to a great confusion about the causes of crime and about how to intervene effectively. An interesting approach of joining theory-testing and policy-making was identified with Thomas Bernard and Jeffery Snipes's risk-factor approach, which focuses on the explained variance, the predictive power of independent factors and variables, and the direction of causation. This perspective is at the basis of a developmental and life-course (DLC) theories. DLC theories aim to explain the development of antisocial behavior, the risk and protective factors most salient at different ages and at different stages ...