Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Contracts, with Teacher Unions
Penelope Walters Swenson
Unionization of teachers began during the 1940s. Spurred by litigation, the means of dealing with unions was explored by governing boards across the United States, until, in the 1960s, collective bargaining for public employees, including teachers, became a reality in most regions. By this time, many teacher associations had agency shops, where the exclusive collective-bargaining agent for the teachers was the union. Individuals who did not join the union were charged an agency fee. Contracts initially were developed between the parties at the district site, but increasingly, today's contracts are articulated documents based on information shared statewide and even nationally by the respective parties. From state to state, there is a general pattern of local union/association representation, with a union/ association staff member who is a seasoned negotiator participating in the collective bargaining with the board or the board's representatives. Frequently, the board members or their representatives are supported by ...