Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Despite laws to the contrary, race-gender discrimination continues in public education, and theorists credit its occurrence to ideologies, principles, and paradigms related to such practices as zero-tolerance polices, ability grouping, and overrepresentation in special education. Comparable educational laws and policies aimed to protect lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students fail to exist in many public schools and have been linked to a host of physical, verbal, and emotional abuse. Overall, a need exists in the literature to further explore these positions of discrimination. Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 set the tone for antidiscriminatory practices in U.S. public schools. The outcome of this landmark lawsuit was not an end discussion about educational equality. For example, the 1972 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act-Title IX to prohibit sexual-racial discrimination in public education for the protection of employees and students. Despite the act's specific language, the courts did not Theorists ...