Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was born in 1856, in the small Austro-Hungarian town of Freiberg (now in Czech Republic). At the age of 4, Sigmund and his family moved to Vienna, where he was to live for almost 80 years. From his early years, he loved books, and he avidly read the work of great playwrights, poets, and philosophers. In 1883, he graduated from the Medical School of the University of Vienna. In his early career, he was an assistant to Ernst Brucke, who worked on neurological problems of lower animals, but he was dissatisfied with the poor returns of this work. He gained a postgraduate stipend to work in Paris with the neurologist Jean Charcot. On his return to Austria, he developed a close relationship with Josef Breuer. Under his influence, he started using hypnosis , a method that was leading the patient to catharsis through sessions of unconsciously libido ...