Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Giftedness, Gifted Education
The concept of giftedness was historically linked to the concepts of high achieving and, more specifically, genius. This understanding was formed around the turn of the century with the introduction of tests designed to measure intelligence. Individuals who scored high on the scale were considered geniuses. The use of intelligence tests as the determinant of giftedness has been criticized in recent years because tests are often biased in favor of the white middle class and because they penalize children with differing linguistic styles. Researchers have adapted a broader set of definitions beyond intellectual ability, including creativity, memory, motivation, physical dexterity, social adeptness, and aesthetic sensitivity. When approaching the study of giftedness and gifted education, an examination of the problems related to gifted individuals is also in order. Education was not organized in a systematic way until 1840–1850. In the early 1900s, the general public became interested in adapting education to ...