Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Governance refers to the general exercise of authority within a system of control and accountability. Governing involves formal processes or procedures of control and communication, as well as informal processes or norms, intentional or not. Governance requires understanding the factors that shape the exercise and direction of this authority, including (a) the structures as well as the ensuing roles and relationships among actors and institutions, (b) the official processes and institutional norms that regulate behavior, and (c) the values and desired ends sought after by the system. Whether from its structure or its processes, from unofficial or authorized influence, researchers have studied governance from various vantage points, but each with an eye to understanding how educational organizations and systems should be and are directed and regulated. The concept of governance has been approached in a variety of ways. At times, it has been studied through its formal structures and actors, ...