Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Carol A. Mullen
Historically, art referred to useful skills, such as shoemaking, metalworking, medicine, agriculture, and even warfare, and in a broad sense, art is still associated with a skill in making or doing. Traditional categories encompass diverse media, including literature (e.g., drama, poetry, prose), visual arts (e.g., drawing, painting, sculpture), and graphic arts (e.g., lithography, photography, printmaking). The definition, among many possible that exist today, that is perhaps most relevant is that art is the conscious use of a person's skills and creative imagination in the production of aesthetic objects. The fine arts are those expressive modalities that require both skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic products, environments, or other kinds of experiences that can be shared with others. Art movements and periods are numerous. Among the most well-known, originating in either Europe or the United States, are abstract expressionism, classicism, conceptual art, cubism, dadaism, expressionism, impressionism, minimalism, neoclassicism, pointillism, ...