Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Linda C. Tillman
Born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, Malcolm X (1925–1965) was also known as El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, convert to the Nation of Islam, and fighter for equality for all people. Malcolm X's early life was marked by the violent death of his father, separation from his mother and siblings, prison, and his conversion to Islam. Malcolm X was the first minister (spiritual leader) of the Nation of Islam, Temple No. 11, in Boston, Massachusetts. He quickly gained a reputation for his oratorical skills, his dedication to the Nation of Islam, and his ability to draw others to Islam. He also became known as a defender of human and civil rights and an outspoken critic of the condition of Blacks in the United States and abroad. He moved to New York and later married Betty (Sanders) X. He and Betty (also known as Betty Shabazz) were parents ...