Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Management by Objectives
Management by objectives (MBO) is a management system that includes cooperative goal setting throughout the organization, cooperative process identification for goal achievement, and appraisal of performance based on achievement of goals set. When implemented correctly, MBO can positively influence unit and organizational productivity, employee and managerial morale, employee attendance, and other organizational dimensions. Research on MBO has not shown positive results; generally, the causes for these disappointing results relate to poor or incomplete implementation of the system rather than any problem with the idea itself. Schools and districts were participants in the early popularity of MBO; while few reference MBO at this time, school improvement planning and program implementation and evaluation incorporate the major elements of the MBO process. MBO was developed in the early 1950s and generally became a fad in the 1960s and early 1970s. The concept fell into disrepute in the 1980s and 1990s, with the research ...