Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Organizations, Types of, Typologies
Duane M. Covrig
Formal organizations dominate modern social life. Understanding the types of organizations influencing modern processes can improve researchers' and leaders' understanding of organized group behavior, social and political processes, as well as productivity and group decision making. First, two types of formal organizations— political and religious —have existed for thousands of years. Governmental regimes like those of ancient Egypt (dating to around 1800–1300 BC ) were highly organized and systematic in running state matters, taxation, justice, defense, and international issues. Long-lasting religious organizations, like the Roman Catholic Church (especially after the fourth century AD ) also show the early development of highly organized structures. In fact, both these examples have also been classified as bureaucratic organizations, organizations with tightly coupled formal structures, diversified labor (bureaus), and clear lines of authority. In the late 1800s, increased social diversification linked to the industrial revolution ...