Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Robert H. Beach & Ronald A. Lindahl
Planning is a future-oriented and hierarchical discipline that encompasses various models, each prescribing approaches for actions that will bring about change. By definition, it can be thought of as an attempt to change the future by current and ongoing action. All planning is dedicated to changing some future—either in the very short term or over some longer period, perhaps decades. Its hierarchical structure is composed of several layers of alternative choices as to how to proceed in an attempt to create change. The first of these layers addresses broad questions relative to how one approaches the processes of planning and change. This is essentially a set of philosophies of planning. Within these philosophies there exists a second layer of the hierarchy, the distinct models of planning that have been proposed by various authors as a defined formula or set of activities and approaches—the “how to” of planning. Finally, there are ...