Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Bobbie J. Greenlee
Promotion is the change in grade-level assignment at the end of the school year for a student who meets the criteria for advancement to the next highest grade level. Social promotion is the passing of students who have not mastered the academic requirements to successive grades in order to keep them with their peers. The practice of social promotion is often carried out in the interest of a student's social and psychological well-being, without regard to achievement. Social promotion evolved as a solution to the serious problems caused by grade retention in the nineteenth century. As graded schools began replacing the oneroom schoolhouse, students were promoted on “merit,” the mastery of fixed academic requirements for each grade level. Approximately one half of the students were retained during their first eight years of school. Many times, students repeated more than one grade. Attrition of students, especially those from poor and immigrant ...