Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Psychology, Types of
J. M. Blackbourn & William Barrios & Keith E. Davis & Jennifer Fillingim
Psychology, in its broadest sense, is the study of human behavior. It involves the investigation of learning, motivation, memory, personality, intelligence, and leadership. Psychological theory provides the framework by which causation, prediction, and control of behavior can be systematically addressed. Those types of psychology most closely related to the field of education include Behaviorism Developmental psychology Humanistic psychology Descriptive psychology Social psychology Cognitive psychology Psychometry and psychological testing Behaviorism, or behavioral psychology, is based primarily on the work of Edward Thorndike and B. F. Skinner. It is an attempt to address human behavior from a scientific, functionalist, objectivist perspective. Behaviorism relies on direct observation of measurable behavioral phenomena. The prime focus of behavioral psychology is to determine the effect of consequences on behavior and thereby enhance learning, motivation, and performance. The construct encompassed in Thorndike's law of effect, that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences tend to be repeated ...