Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
An achievement test is an assessment tool that measures what students have learned over a period of time. Student learning may take place in a number of domains. In the 1950s, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues proposed a six-level taxonomy of cognitive learning: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The lowest level of the taxonomy, knowledge, generally requires a student to memorize facts and concepts. The next level, comprehension, is a result of more internal processing of the information a student has learned. The more advanced levels, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, involve more complex skills and mental processes. Student learning may also occur in the affective domain. For example, it is widely believed that student motivation toward a subject may change as a result of instructions. There is also the psychomotor domain that deals with a student's use of muscles, such as typing and athletic skills. Unfortunately, assessment ...