Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
A standardized test uses certain procedures to reduce errors of measurement. It is usually developed by a group of content experts and psychometricians. The former's responsibility is to ensure that the test items adequately sample important content areas of the subject tested. The latter's work is to select items with the appropriate difficulty and discrimination levels. The experts and psychometricians also work together to avoid item bias or test bias. A standardized test also uses standardization to reduce errors during the test administration and scoring processes. Standardization of test administration includes the use of uniform testing time, procedures, and testing environment. People responsible for test administration usually go through special training to ensure the uniformity of the administration process, a prerequisite for the fair comparison of test scores. Standardized tests also use machines for scoring objective items such as multiple-choice questions. For subjective items such as essay questions, special training ...